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Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Thomas Gruber

Allgemeine Psychologie I

Tel.: +49 541 969-7670

Raum: 75/255
Fachbereich 8: Humanwissenschaften
Lise-Meitner-Straße 3
49076 Osnabrück
Sprechzeiten: Di 12-14 (Terminvergabe im Sekretariat)


Sommersemester 2024
Forschungsorientiertes Praktikum Ib (1) (S)
Forschungsorientiertes Praktikum Ib (2) (S)
Forschungsorientiertes Praktikum Ib (3) (S)
Kognitiv-affektive Neurowissenschaften (1) (S)
Kognitiv-affektive Neurowissenschaften (2) (S)
Kognitiv-affektive Neurowissenschaften (3) (S)
Kognitiv-affektive Neurowissenschaften (4) (S)
Lernen, Gedächtnis und Motivation


Akademische Abschlüsse und berufliche Tätigkeiten

Seit 10/2008
W3-Professur für Allgemeine Psychologie I, Universität Osnabrück

Habilitation (venia legendi für Psychologie)

Wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter und Leiter des EEG Labors am Lehrstuhl für Allgemeine Psychologie und Methodenlehre der Universität Leipzig.

Wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter am Lehrstuhl für Kognitive Neurowissenschaften an der Universität Liverpool, England

Promotion (Universität Konstanz) – Dr. rer. nat.

Wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter am Lehrstuhl für Klinische Psychologie der Universität Konstanz

Neuropsychologische Rehabilitationsklinik Ichenhausen/Ulm

Studium der Psychologie (Universität Konstanz) – Dipl. Psych.

Studium der Technischen Informatik (Berufsakademie Stuttgart) – Dipl. Ing. (BA) 



Gruber, T. Basiswissen Psychologie: Gedächtnis (2. Auflage). Springer, 2018.

Gruber, T. Basiswissen Psychologie: Gedächtnis. Springer-VS Verlag, 2011.


Publikationen in Fachzeitschriften mit Begutachtungssystem

[95] Sylvester, S., Sagehorn, M., Gruber, T., Atzmueller, M., Schöne, B.. SHAP value-based ERP analysis (SHERPA): Increasing the sensitivity of EEG signals with explainable AI methods. Behav Res Methods. 2024, DOI: 10.3758/s13428-023-02335-7

[94] Sagehorn, M., Johnsdorf, M., Kisker, J., Gruber, T., Schöne, B.: Electrophysiological correlates of face and object perception: A comparative analysis of 2D laboratory and Virtual Reality conditions, Psychophysiology, 2024, DOI: 10.1111/psyp.14519

[93] Kisker, J., Johnsdorf, M., Sagehorn, M., Schöne, B., Gruber, T.: Induced Oscillatory Brain Responses under Virtual Reality Conditions in the Context of Repetition Priming, Experimental Brain Research, 2024, DOI 10.1007/s00221-023-06766-8

[92] Johnsdorf, M., Pham, K., Schmidt, T., Truong, V., Wohnig, A., Kisker, J., Gruber, T., Schöne, B.: New isn’t Always Better: Virtual Reality Does not Necessarily Enhance Mnemonic Processing, Frontiers in Psychology, 2023, DOI 10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1089725

[91] Sagehorn, M., Johnsdorf, M, Kisker, J., Sylvester, S., Gruber, T, Schöne, B.: Real-life relevant face perception is not captured by the N170 but reflected in later potentials: A comparison of 2D and Virtual Reality stimuli,  Frontiers in Psychology, 2023, DOI 10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1050892 

[90] Schöne, B., Kisker, J., Lange, L., Gruber, T., Sylvester, S., Osinsky, R.: The Reality of Virtual Reality, Frontiers in Psychology, 2023, doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1093014

[89] Johnsdorf, M., Kisker, J., Gruber, T., Schöne, B.: Comparing Encoding Mechanisms in Realistic Virtual Reality and Conventional 2D Laboratory Settings: Event-Related Potentials in a Repetition Suppression Paradigm, Frontiers in Psychology, 2023, doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1051938

[88] Köster, M., Gruber, T.: Rhythms of Human Attention and Memory – an Embedded Process Perspective, Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 2022, DOI 10.3389/fnhum.2022.905837

[87] Kisker, J., Lange, L., Flinkenflügel, K., Kaup, M., Labersweiler, N., Tetenborg, F., Ott, P., Gundler, C., Gruber, T., Osinsky, R., Schöne, B.: Authentic fear responses in virtual reality: A mobile EEG study on affective, behavioral and electrophysiological correlates of fear, Frontiers in Virtual Reality, 2021, doi: 10.3389/frvir.2021.716318

[86] Schöne, B., Kisker, J., Sylvester, S., Radtke, E., Gruber, T.: Library for Universal Virtual Reality Experiments (luVRe): A standardized immersive 3D/360° picture and video database for VR based research, Current Pychology, 2021,

[85] Radtke, E., Martens, U., Gruber, T.:The steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) reflects the activation of cortical object representations: Evidence from semantic stimulus repetition, Experimental Brain Research, 2020,

[84] Kisker, J., Gruber, T., Schöne, B.: Virtual reality experiences promote autobiographical retrieval mechanisms: Electrophysiological correlates of laboratory and virtual experiences, Psychological Research, 2020,

[83] Schöne, B., Sylvester, R., Radtke, E., Gruber, T.: Sustained inattentional blindness in virtual reality and under conventional laboratory conditions, Virtual Reality, 2020,

[82] Voges, M., Giabbiconi, C.M., Schöne, B. Gruber, T., Hartmann, A.S., Vocks, S,: Time course of body recognition in women with weight and shape concerns investigated by steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP), Biological Psychology, 2020, 154, 107906

[81] Radtke, E., Schöne, B., Martens, U., Gruber, T.: Electrophysiological correlates of gist perception: A steady-state visually evoked potentials study, Experimental Brain Research, 2020, 238, 1399–1410,

[80] Mascelloni, M., Zamparelli, R., Vespigniani, F., Gruber, T., Mueller, J.L.: Distinct neural processes for memorizing form and meaning within sentences, Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 2019, doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2019.00412

[79] Kisker, J., Gruber, T., Schöne, B.: Behavioral realism and lifelike psychophysiological responses in Virtual Reality on the example of a height exposure, Psychological Research, 2019,

[78] Graetz, S., Daume, J., Friese, U., Gruber, T.: Alterations in oscillatory cortical activity indicate changes in mnemonic processing during continuous item recognition, Experimental Brain Research, 2019, 237, 573-583

[77] Kisker, J., Gruber, T., Schöne, B.: Experiences in Virtual Reality entail different processes of retrieval as opposed to conventional laboratory settings: A study on human Memory, Current Psychology, 2019,

[76] Voges, M., Giabbiconi, CM, Gruber, T., Andersen, S., Hartmann, A., Vocks, S.: Sustained hypervigilance for the own body in women with weight and shape concerns: competition effects in early visual processing investigated by steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP), Biological Psychology, 2019, 143, 74-84.

[76] Köster, M., Martens, U., Gruber, T.: Memory entrainment by visually evoked theta-gamma coupling, NeuroImage, 2019, 188, 181-7. 

[75] Schöne, B., Wessels, M., Gruber, T.: Experiences in Virtual Reality: A Window to Autobiographical Memory, Current Psychology, 2019, 38, 715-719

[74] Schöne, B., Kösters, M., Gruber, T.:  Coherence in general and personal semantic knowledge: Functional differences of the posterior and centro-parietal N400 ERP component,  Experimental Brain Research, 2018, 236, 2649-2660

[73] Köster, M., Finger, H., Graetz, S., Kater, M., Gruber, T.: Theta-gamma coupling binds visual perceptual features in an associative memory Task, Scientific Reports, 2018, 8:17688.

[72] Schöne, B., Gruber, T., Graetz, S.,Bernhof, M., Malinowski, P.: Mindful breath awareness meditation facilitates efficiency gains in brain networks: A steady-state visually evoked potentials study, Scientific Reports, 2018, 8:13687

[71] Daume, J., Graetz, S., Gruber, T., Engel, A.K., Friese, U.: Cognitive control during audiovisual working memory engages frontotemporal theta-band interactions, Scientific Reports, 2017, 7:12585

[70] Köster, M. Castel, J., Gruber, T. Kärtner, J.: Visual cortical networks align with behavioral measures of context-sensitivity in early childhood, NeuroImage, 2017, 163, 413-418

[69] Bonhage, C.E., Meyer, L., Gruber, T.,Friederici, A. Mueller, J.L.: Oscillatory EEG dynamics underlying automatic chunking during sentence processing. NeuroImage, 2017, 152, 647-657

[68] Daume, J., Gruber, T.,Engel, A.K., Friese, U.: Phase-amplitude coupling and long-range phase synchronization reveal frontotemporal interactions during visual working memory. Journal of Neuroscience, 2017, 37(2), 313-22

[67] Malinowski, P., Moore, A.W., Mead, B.R., Gruber, T. : Mindful aging: The effects of regular brief mindfulness practice on electrophysiological markers of cognitive and affective processing in older adults. Mindfulness, 2017, 8, 78-94

[66] Köster, M., Finger, H., Kater, M., Schenk, C., Gruber, T.: Neuronal oscillations indicate sleep-dependent changes in the cortical memory trace. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 2017, 29, 698-707

[65] Giabbiconi, C.M., Jurilj,  V., Gruber, T., Vocks, S.: Steady-State Visually Evoked Potential Correlates of Human Body Perception. Experimental Brain Research, 2016, 3133-43

[64] Schomberg, J., Schöne, B., Gruber, T., Quirin, M.: Emotion and Hypervigilance: Negative Affect Predicts Increased P1 Responses to Non-Negative Pictorial Stimuli. Experimental Brain Research, 2016, 1395-402

[63] Schöne, B., Schomberg, J., Gruber, T., Quirin, M.: Event related frontal alpha asymmetries: Electrophysiological correlates of approach motivation. Experimental Brain Research, 2016, 559-67

[62] Malinowski, P., Moore, A., Mead, B.Gruber, T.:Mindful Aging: The effects of regular brief mindfulness practice on electrophysiological markers of cognitive and affective processing in older adults. Mindfulness, 2015, (DOI) 10.1007/s12671-015-0482-8

[61] Köster, M., Friese, U., Schöne, B., Trujillo-Barreto, N. Gruber, T.: Theta-Gamma Coupling during Episodic Retrieval in the Human EEG. Brain Research, 2014, 1577, 57-68.

[60] Lally, N., Mullins, P.G., Roberts, M.V., Price D., Gruber, T., Haenschel, C.: Glutamatergic correlates of gamma-band oscillatory activity during cognition: A concurrent ER-MRS and EEG study. NeuroImage, 2014, 85, 823-33.

[59] Quirin, M., Gruber, T., Kuhl, J., Düsing, R.: Is Love Right? Prefrontal Resting Brain Asymmetry Is Related to the Affiliation Motive. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 2013, 7, Article 902.

[58] Friese, U., Köster, M., Hassler, U., Martens, U., Trujillo-Barreto, N., Gruber, T.: Successful memory encoding is associated with increased cross-frequency coupling between frontal theta and posterior gamma oscillations in human scalp-recorded EEG. NeuroImage, 2013, 66, 642-7.

[57] Hassler, U., Friese, U., Martens, U., Trujillo-Barreto, N., Gruber, T.: Repetition Priming effects dissociate between miniature eye movements and induced gamma-band responses in the human EEG. European Journal of Neuroscience, 2013, 38, 2425-33.

[56] Kuhr, B., Schomberg, J., Gruber, T., Quirin, M.: Beyond pleasure and arousal: appetitive erotic stimuli modulate electrophysiological brain correlates of early attentional processing. NeuroReport, 2013, 24, 246-50.

[55] Pieszek, M., Widmann, A., Gruber, T., Schröger, E.: The Human Brain Maintains Contradictory and Redundant Auditory Sensory Predictions. PLoS One, 2013, 8, e53634.

[54] Friese, U., Rahm, B., Hassler, U., Kaiser, J., Gruber, T.: Repetition suppression and effects of familiarity on blood oxygenation level dependent signal and gamma-band activity. NeuroReport, 2012, 23(13), 757-61.

[53] Friese, U., Supp, G., Hipp, J. F., Engel, A. K., Gruber, T.: Oscillatory MEG gamma band activity dissociates perceptual and conceptual aspects of visual object processing: A combined repetition/conceptual priming study. NeuroImage, 2012, 59, 861-71.

[52] Martens, U., Gruber, T.:Sharpening and formation: two distinct neuronal mechanisms of repetition priming. European Journal of Neuroscience, 2012, 36, 2989–2995.

[51] Martens, U., Gert A.L., Gruber, T.: Influences of encoding and retrieval on the steady-state visual evoked potential. NeuroReport, 2012, 23, 337-41.

[50] Martens, U.,Wahl, P., Haßler, U., Friese, U., Gruber, T.: Implicit and explicit contributions to object recognition: Evidence from rapid perceptual learning. PLoS One, 2012, 7, e47009.

[49] Moore, A., Gruber, T., Derose, J., Malinowski, P.: Regular, brief mindfulness meditation practice improves electrophysiological markers of attentional control. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 2012, 6, Article 18.

[48] Oppermann, F., Hassler, U., Jescheniak, J. D., Gruber, T.: The rapid extraction of gist – early neural correlates of high-level visual processing. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 2012, 24(2), 521-29.

[47] Dobel, C., Junghöfer, M., Gruber, T.: The role of Gamma-Band activity in representation of faces: the case of congenital prosopagnosia. PLoS One, 2011, 6, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0019550.

[46] Hassler, U., Trujillo-Barreto, N., Gruber, T.: Induced gamma band responses in human EEG after the control of miniature saccadic artifacts. NeuroImage, 2011, 57, 1411-1421.

[45] Martens, U., Trujillo-Barreto, N., Gruber, T.: Perceiving the Tree in the Woods:
Segregating Brain Responses to Stimuli Constituting Natural Scenes. Journal of Neuroscience, 2011, 31(48), 17713-18.

[44] Kaspar, K., Hassler, U.,Martens, U., Trujillo-Barreto, N., Gruber, T., Steady-State Visually Evoked Potential Correlates of Object Recognition. Brain Research, 2010, 1343, 112-121.

[43] Roye, A., Schröger, E., Jacobsen, T., Gruber, T., Is my mobile ringing? Evidence for rapid processing of a personally significant sound in humans. Journal of Neuroscience, 2010, 30(21), 7310-7313.

[42] Martinovic, J., Gruber, T., Müller, M. M., Priming of Object Categorization within and across Levels of Specificity. Psihologija, 2009, 42, 27-46.

[41] Martinovic, J., Gruber, T., Ohla, K., Müller, M. M.: Induced gamma-band activity elicited by visual representation of unattended objects. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 2009, 21, 42-57.

[40] Senkowski, D., D. Saint-Amour, T. Gruber, and J.J. Foxe, Look who's talking: The deployment of visuo-spatial attention in multisensory speech processing under noisy environmental conditions. NeuroImage, 2008. 43(2): p. 379-387.

[39] Martinovic, J., T. Gruber, and M.M. Müller, Coding of visual object features and feature conjunctions in the human brain. PLoS One, 2008. 11(3).

[38] Martinovic, J., T. Gruber, A. Hantsch, and M.M. Müller, Induced gamma-band activity is related to the time point of object identification. Brain Research, 2008. 1198: p. 93–106.

[37] Gruber, T., D. Tsivilis, C.M. Giabbiconi, and M.M. Müller, Induced EEG oscillations during source memory: familiarity is reflected in the gamma-, recollection in the theta-band. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 2008. 20(6): p. 1043-1053.

[36] Gruber, T., J. Martinovic, and M.M. Müller, It’s all in your eyes? Induced gamma band responses in the human EEG. Comment on Yuval-Greenberg et al. (2008). Neuron online, 2008.

[35] Gruber, T., B. Maess, N.J. Trujillo-Barreto, and M.M. Müller, Sources of synchronized induced Gamma-Band Responses during a simple object recognition task: A replication study in human MEG. Brain Research, 2008. 1196: p. 74-84.

[34] Fuchs, S., S. Andersen, T. Gruber, and M.M. Müller, Attentional bias of competitive interactions in neuronal networks of early visual processing in the human brain. NeuroImage, 2008. 41: p. 1086-1101.

[33] Fründ, I., N. Busch, A. Schadow, T. Gruber, U. Körner, and C.S. Herrmann, Time pressure modulates electrophysiological correlates of early visual processing PLoS ONE, 2008. 3(2): p. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001675.

[32] Widmann, A., T. Gruber, T. Kujala, M. Tervaniemi, and E. Schröger, Binding symbols and sounds: evidence from event-related oscillatory gamma band activity. Cerebral Cortex, 2007. 17: p. 2696-2702.

[31] Supp, G.G., A. Schlögl, J.N. Trujillo-Barreto, M.M. Müller, and T. Gruber, Directed cortical information flow during human object recognition: Analyzing induced EEG gamma band responses in brain's source space. PLoS ONE, 2007. 2(8): p. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000684.

[30] Martinovic, J., T. Gruber, and M.M. Müller, Induced Gamma Band Responses Predict Recognition Delays during Object Identification. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 2007. 19(6): p. 921-934.

[29] Giabbiconi, C.M., J.N. Trujillo-Barreto, T. Gruber, and M.M. Müller, Sustained spatial attention to vibration is mediated in primary somatosensory cortex. NeuroImage, 2007. 35: p. 255-262.

[28] Conrad, N., C.M. Giabbiconi, M.M. Müller, and T. Gruber, Neuronal correlates of repetition priming of frequently presented objects: Insights from induced Gamma Band Responses. Neuroscience Letters, 2007. 429: p. 126-130.

[27] Gruber, T., J.N. Trujillo-Barreto, C.M. Giabbiconi, P.A. Valdés-Sosa, and M.M. Müller, Brain Electrical Tomography (BET) Analysis of Induced Gamma Band Responses during a Simple Object Recognition Task. NeuroImage, 2006. 29: p. 888-900.

[26] Gruber, T. and M.M. Müller, Oscillatory brain activity in the human EEG during indirect and direct memory tasks. Brain Research, 2006. 1097: p. 194-204.

[25] Gruber, T., C.M. Giabbiconi, N. Trujillo-Barreto, and M.M. Müller, Repetition suppression of induced gamma band responses is eliminated by task switching. European Journal of Neuroscience, 2006. 24: p. 2654-2660.

[24] Busch, N., C.S. Herrmann, M.M. Müller, D. Lenz, and T. Gruber, A cross-lab study of event-related gamma activity in a standard object-recognition paradigm. NeuroImage, 2006. 33: p. 1169–1177.

[23] Gruber, T. and M.M. Müller, Oscillatory Brain Activity dissociates between Associative Stimulus Content in a Repetition Priming Task in the Human EEG. Cerebral Cortex, 2005. 15(1): p. 109-116.

[22] Fiebach, C.J., T. Gruber, and G. Supp, Neuronal Mechanisms of Repetition Priming in Occipitotemporal Cortex: Spatiotemporal Evidence from Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Electroencephalography. Journal of Neuroscience, 2005. 25(13): p. 3414-3422.

[21] Brown, C., T. Gruber, J. Boucher, G. Rippon, and J. Brock, Gamma abnormalities during perception of illusory figures in autism. Cortex, 2005. 41(3): p. 364-76.

[20] Zopf, R., C.M. Giabbiconi, T. Gruber, and M.M. Müller, Attentional modulation of the human somatosensory evoked potential in a trial-by-trial spatial cueing and sustained spatial attention task measured with high density 128 channels EEG. Cognitive Brain Research, 2004. 20(3): p. 491-509.

[19] Gruber, T., D. Tsivilis, D. Montaldi, and M.M. Müller, Induced gamma band responses: an early marker of memory encoding and retrieval. NeuroReport, 2004. 15(11): p. 1837-1841.

[18] Gruber, T., P. Malinowski, and M.M. Müller, Modulation of Oscillatory Brain Activity and Evoked Potentials in a Repetition Priming Task in the Human EEG. European Journal of Neuroscience, 2004. 19: p. 1073-1082.

[17] Giabbiconi, C.M., C. Dancer, R. Zopf, T. Gruber, and M.M. Müller, Selective spatial attention to left or right hand flutter sensation modulates the steady-state somatosensory evoked potential. Cognitive Brain Research, 2004. 20(1): p. 58-66.

[16] Müller, M.M., P. Malinowski, T. Gruber, and S.A. Hillyard, Sustained division of the attentional spotlight. Nature, 2003. 424(6946): p. 309-12.

[15] Keil, A., M. Stolarova, S. Heim, T. Gruber, and M.M. Müller, Temporal stability of high-frequency brain oscillations in the human EEG. Brain Topography, 2003. 16(2): p. 101-10.

[14] Keil, A., T. Gruber, M.M. Müller, S. Moratti, M. Stolarova, M.M. Bradley, and P.J. Lang, Early modulation of visual perception by emotional arousal: evidence from steady-state visual evoked brain potentials. Cognitive and Affective Behavioural Neuroscience, 2003. 3(3): p. 195-206.

[13] Malinowski, P., R. Hübner, A. Keil, and T. Gruber, The influence of response competition on cerebral asymmetries for processing hierarchical stimuli revealed by ERP recordings. Experimental Brain Research, 2002. 144(1): p. 136-9.

[12] Gruber, T. and M.M. Müller, Effects of picture repetition on induced gamma band responses, evoked potentials, and phase synchrony in the human EEG. Cognitive Brain Research, 2002. 13: p. 377-392.

[11] Gruber, T., A. Keil, and M.M. Müller, Modulation of Induced Gamma Band responses in a perceptual learning task in the human EEG. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 2002. 14(5): p. 732-744.

[10] Müller, M.M., A. Keil, J. Kissler, and T. Gruber, Suppression of the auditory middle-latency response and evoked gamma-band response in a paired-click paradigm. Experimental Brain Research, 2001. 136(4): p. 474-9.

[9] Müller, M.M. and T. Gruber, Induced gamma-band responses in the human EEG are related to attentional information processing. Visual Cognition, 2001. 8: p. 579-592.

[8] Keil, A., M.M. Müller, T. Gruber, C. Wienbruch, M. Stolarova, and T. Elbert, Effects of emotional arousal in the cerebral hemispheres: a study of oscillatory brain activity and event-related potentials. Clinical Neurophysiology, 2001. 112(11): p. 2057-68.

[7] Keil, A., M.M. Müller, T. Gruber, C. Wienbruch, and T. Elbert, Human large-scale oscillatory brain activity during an operant shaping procedure. Cognitive Brain Research, 2001. 12(3): p. 397-407.

[6] Keil, A., T. Gruber, and M.M. Müller, Functional correlates of macroscopic high-frequency brain activity in the human visual system. Neuroscience and Biobehavioural Reviews, 2001. 25(6): p. 527-34.

[5] Gruber, T., A. Keil, and M.M. Müller, Modulation of Induced Gamma Band Responses and phase synchrony in a paired associate learning task in the human EEG. Neuroscience Letters, 2001. 316: p. 29-32.

[4] Müller, M.M., T. Gruber, and A. Keil, Modulation of induced gamma band activity in the human EEG by attention and visual information processing. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 2000. 38(3): p. 283-99.

[3] Müller, M.M., A. Keil, T. Gruber, and T. Elbert, Processing of affective pictures modulates right-hemispheric gamma band EEG activity. Clinical Neurophysiology, 1999. 110(11): p. 1913-20.

[2] Keil, A., M.M. Müller, W.J. Ray, T. Gruber, and T. Elbert, Human gamma band activity and perception of a gestalt. Journal of Neuroscience, 1999. 19(16): p. 7152-61.

[1] Gruber, T., M.M. Müller, A. Keil, and T. Elbert, Selective visual-spatial attention alters induced gamma band responses in the human EEG. Clinical Neurophysiology, 1999. 110: p. 2074-2085.